Bell Ringers

Bell Ringer: Landmark Cases Series: Early 20th Century Working Conditions and The Bake Shop Act

Background on Lochner vs. New York

Andrew Coe, Food Historian, describes working conditions in bake shops during this time which provides background for this case. Randy Barnett and Paul Kens explain the Bake Shop Act.


In describing the landmark Supreme Court Case Lochner v. New York, guests describe working conditions in bake shops at the turn of the 20th Century, the state of the country during the time, and the details of the Bake Shop Act.

Bell Ringer Assignment

  • Describe working conditions in bakeries at the turn of the 20th Century.
  • What was happening in the U.S. at the turn of the century in terms of the economy, cities, public health and safety?
  • Explain the regulations that are detailed in the Bake Shop Act.
  • Explain the provision that was called into question in this case.



  • Gilded Age
  • Progressive Era
  • Sanitary
  • Tenement
  • The Bake Shop Act


Judicial BranchSupreme Court Cases


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