7:29 PM EDT
Matt Salmon, R-AZ 1st

Mr. SALMON. Mr. Chairman, I yield myself such time as I may consume.

Mr. Chairman, before I begin I would like to express my gratitude to the gentleman from California (Chairman PACKARD) for graciously accepting this amendment. He and his staff have been more than generous with their ideas, their time; and thanks to their efforts, we have agreed to fund renewable energy programs well above this year's subcommittee mark and above final funding levels for the last 2 years.

This is particularly notable given this year's limited House Energy and Water budget allocation. Again, I thank the gentleman. We will go golfing together when we get out of here.

Mr. Chairman, I would also like to offer special thanks to the gentleman from Colorado (Mr. UDALL) for his assistance and support of this amendment. His outstanding work is much appreciated by the renewable energy community, and myself, and the future of this planet. I thank the gentleman very much.

The amendment that the gentleman from Colorado and I are proposing today is a timely and responsible effort to increase funding for renewable energy for research and development programs. The amendment adds $40 million to the renewable energy budget. This funding is necessary to ensure continued quality research and development that is so vital to our national security.

The amendment is offset by a reduction in contractor travel. Though the committee cut funding for this program last year, abuses still persist. Additionally, given the choice between travel dollars for contractors and research dollars for the future of America, it is clear that we must choose the latter.

Today, I urge my colleagues to join me in declaring that the time for renewable energy is now. Americans are paying more for fuel right now than at any time in our history. Dependency on foreign oil is at all-time highs. We fought a war less than 10 years ago over threats to our oil supply, and we agreed then we had to decrease our reliance on foreign oil. Domestic oil production is down 17 percent since the start of the current administration.

Mr. Chairman, we must now work to diversify our energy portfolio and draw on domestic renewable energy resources that, given the funding and priority they deserve, will provide much- [Page: H5251]

needed reliable, affordable energy to American homes, businesses, and industry, and free us from foreign control.

The urgency of this situation is most clearly illustrated by the recent gas prices. Climbing fuel costs across the Nation have served as a painful reminder of our overdependence on foreign oil. For over a year, countries from the OPEC cartel and other oil-producing countries have conspired to steal from Americans by artificially inflating the price of oil. These hikes have had a dramatic effect on the life of every American and threaten the state of our economy.

Clearly, we rely too heavily on unreliable foreign oil supply from the world's most volatile region. We must lessen our dependence on foreign oil and recognize renewable energy as a vitally important and, I believe, undervalued component of responsible energy.

[Time: 19:30]

This morning, Secretary Richardson spoke before the Committee on International Relations and commented that our increased technology and renewable energy will be one of the factors that will bring oil prices back down and lessen our dependence on foreign oil.

Despite exciting advances and promising advantages, renewable energy has been underfunded in comparison to competing energy programs. From 1973, when Federal funding for renewable energy technologies started in earnest, through fiscal year 1996, in real 1977 dollars, the Federal Government has spent $42 billion for research and development in nuclear and $19 billion for fossil fuels.

Contrast those figures with the $11 billion spent for renewable energy research and development and $7 billion for energy efficiency. Clearly, renewable energy technologies need and deserve more comparable support, particularly in light of the fact that we are losing the technology race to other countries, causing an even greater imbalance in trade.

Countries like Germany and Japan are placing much higher priority on funding renewable energy research and development, posing the risk of U.S. technology advancement being lost to overseas competition.

Despite the financial inequity of research and development funding, renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies have made impressive progress. Take, for example, the advances being made in my home State of Arizona. Arizona recently became the first State to require that a certain percentage of our electricity come from solar sources and one of 27 States to require derivation of energy from renewable sources, including landfill gas, wind and biomass generators.

These renewable energy technologies are steadily gaining acceptance and are just beginning to deliver on the promise of clean, abundant, reliable and increasingly competitive renewable energy. I am confident that with consistent, healthy funding, renewable energy technologies will continue to faithfully deliver on that promise.

As my colleagues know, or many of them know and probably are happy about this, this is my final term, and the close of my service as chairman of the House Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Caucus. I am very pleased at the progress that renewables have made during my stewardship. House caucus membership is at an all-time high of 160 Members. Senate caucus membership has grown to an impressive 26 Members. Nationwide support for renewable energy is strong and growing, and funding levels are

back on the rise.

I am optimistic about this year's House and Senate funding levels and hope that, as more funds become available, the conference bill will further boost appropriations for renewable energy and energy efficiency programs.

I urge my colleagues to support renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development. Together, we can ensure a secure, abundant, clean and promising renewable energy future.

Mr. Chairman, I reserve the balance of my time.

7:36 PM EDT
Mark Udall, D-CO 2nd

Mr. UDALL of Colorado. Mr. Chairman, I rise today to offer this amendment with the gentleman from Arizona (Mr. SALMON) who chairs the House Caucus on Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency, and with the gentleman from New York (Mr. BOEHLERT) and the gentlewoman from Ohio (Ms. KAPTUR). I especially want to thank the gentleman from Arizona (Mr. SALMON) for working with me on this amendment. This is our second joint effort in the last 2 years.

I join with many of my colleagues in saying we will miss the leadership of the gentleman from Arizona (Mr. SALMON) on this issue. We look forward to working with him from his home State of Arizona, and who knows what the future may hold.

I do also want to thank the gentleman from California (Chairman PACKARD) and the gentleman from Indiana (Mr. VISCLOSKY), ranking member, for agreeing to accept this amendment.

The amendment will add $40 million to solar and renewable energy programs in fiscal 2001 and will offset this sum with Department of Energy contractor funds. While this increase is not even close to the levels of the request, it is a good start, and I hope it can begin a trend toward increased funding for these programs in future years.

After all the rhetoric we have been hearing in the last few weeks in the newspapers, on the talk shows, and on the floor about our lack of an energy policy, I am glad to have this opportunity today to rise above recrimination to get to the heart of the problem.

I want to talk about the importance of agreeing on a long-term energy policy, one that requires us to think beyond today's gasoline prices and beyond the elections in November. I want to talk about the real crisis that will develop in 10 or 20 years from now when oil prices will probably go up permanently as a result of increasing global demand and of passing the peak in global petroleum production.

We have not done enough to prepare for this eventuality. But we might have the opportunity to do so now. If there is a silver lining to the current crisis in oil prices, it is that we are being forced to consider alternative energy sources.

The Department of Energy has been looking into these alternatives for years. Twenty years after research on clean energy technologies began, these technologies are becoming a part of the solution to concerns about the quality of our water and air and changes in our climate.

DOE's renewable energy programs are vital to our Nation's interests, helping to provide strategies and tools to address the environmental challenges we will face in the coming decades. By reducing air pollution and other environmental impacts from energy production and use, these programs also constitute the single largest and most effective Federal pollution prevention program.

Investments in sustainable energy technologies meet multiple other public policy objectives. Far from decreasing, U.S. dependence on imported oil has actually increased to record levels over the past 25 years. The gentleman from Arizona (Mr. SALMON) and I are old enough to remember the gas lines and the early crisis of the early 1970s. These programs are helping us to reduce our reliance on oil imports, thereby strengthening our national security, and also creating hundreds of new domestic

businesses, supporting thousands of American jobs, and opening new international markets for American goods and services.

It is estimated that the world market for energy supply and construction over the next 30 years will be in the range of several hundred billion dollars per year. America currently leads the world technologically in developing advanced renewable instruments and products; and we cannot, I say cannot, afford to surrender this lead to our foreign competitors.

Past Federal support for sustainable energy programs has been key to the rapid growth of these emerging renewable technologies. Solar, wind, geothermal, and biomass technologies have together more than tripled their contribution to the Nation's energy mix of our Nation over the last two decades. Including hydropower renewables, renewables now account for over [Page: H5252]

10 percent of domestic energy production, and approximately 13 percent of domestic electricity

generation.

While these technologies have become increasingly cost-competitive, the pace of their penetration into the market will be determined largely by government support for future research and development as well as by assistance in catalyzing public-private partnerships, leading to full commercialization.

Not only economic independence, but also environmental health and lower energy costs are advanced by our investment in renewable energy. But for our investment in these technologies to pay off, efforts must be sustained over the long term. It is time for us to recognize the value of clean energy research and development to our communities and to our world and to commit to sustaining our investment in clean energy in the years to come.

Our amendment does not quite do all that should be done, but it does greatly improve the bill. I urge its adoption.

Mr. Chairman, I reserve the balance of my time.

7:41 PM EDT
John E. Peterson, R-PA 5th

Mr. PETERSON of Pennsylvania. Mr. Chairman, I thank the gentleman from Arizona for yielding me this time. I thank him and congratulate him on his amendment.

Mr. Chairman, there has never been a time when this country should be ready for alternatives. There has never been a time when we should be working together to solve our energy problems in this country and start moving away from a 60 percent dependency. It is bad enough to be 60 percent dependent, but worse when one is dependent on unstable parts of the world, some parts of it who desperately do not like us.

On the renewable side, I think one part I want to emphasize on is the hydrogen side. One of the most renewable resources in this country is hydrogen. I believe it has been undervalued as a potential. I believe it has not received, for a long time, the support it should.

This is why I have such a strong interest in the potential for the evolution of a hydrogen economy, an economy where hydrogen can compete and win both as an energy supplement, a pure energy commodity rather than simply as a chemical. Rather than suffering a dependency upon imported energy sources, we can use hydrogen produced here at home as an abundant, efficient energy source with the capacity to increase U.S. competitiveness, bringing high-salaried jobs to this country.

Secondly, hydrogen is abundant. It can be produced from a variety of renewable resources, and it has many uses, offering the promise of significant benefits to the agricultural, manufacturing, transportation, and service sectors of our economy. Our aerospace and chemical industries are ready right now to implement significant increases in the production, distribution, and storage of hydrogen as an energy commodity.

Also, hydrogen is a proven, effective carrier of energy. Today, our cars are fueled with hydrogen-enriched gasoline. Our automobile industry is developing fuel-cell powered cars, and researchers are closing in on ways to power entire communities with hydrogen technology.

There are many who feel that the Third World developing countries will be able to utilize it before us. We can create it and sell it to them, another way to increase American jobs.

I am told that hydrogen can be combined with gasoline, ethanol, methanol, or natural gas. Just adding 5 percent hydrogen to the gasoline/air mixture in an internal combustion engine can reduce nitrogen oxide emissions from 30 to 40 percent. An engine converted to burn pure hydrogen produces mostly clean water as exhaust.

For example, NASA, in addition to using hydrogen to propel the space shuttle, uses hydrogen to provide all the shuttles electric power in on-board fuel cells, whose exhaust, pure water, is used to drink by those who are on the trip.

While this is no secret, some people might be surprised to know that the largest user of hydrogen is the petrochemical industry which infuses oil with growing amounts of hydrogen in order to meet environmental regulations. Hydrogen also improves the potency and lowers emissions of natural gas. I believe this is one of the most immediate targets of continuing opportunity for our industry.

Our economy is a fossil fuel-based economy, and we should be thankful for the success we have had there. But hydrogen, not only is an energy itself, but is an enhancer of the current fossil fuels.

I urge the adoption of this amendment, and I urge a stronger emphasis be put on hydrogen. There is no downside to hydrogen. It is what we should put our investment in. I believe it will be the fuel that will operate our future economy.

[Time: 19:45]

7:41 PM EDT
John E. Peterson, R-PA 5th

Mr. PETERSON of Pennsylvania. Mr. Chairman, I thank the gentleman from Arizona for yielding me this time. I thank him and congratulate him on his amendment.

Mr. Chairman, there has never been a time when this country should be ready for alternatives. There has never been a time when we should be working together to solve our energy problems in this country and start moving away from a 60 percent dependency. It is bad enough to be 60 percent dependent, but worse when one is dependent on unstable parts of the world, some parts of it who desperately do not like us.

On the renewable side, I think one part I want to emphasize on is the hydrogen side. One of the most renewable resources in this country is hydrogen. I believe it has been undervalued as a potential. I believe it has not received, for a long time, the support it should.

This is why I have such a strong interest in the potential for the evolution of a hydrogen economy, an economy where hydrogen can compete and win both as an energy supplement, a pure energy commodity rather than simply as a chemical. Rather than suffering a dependency upon imported energy sources, we can use hydrogen produced here at home as an abundant, efficient energy source with the capacity to increase U.S. competitiveness, bringing high-salaried jobs to this country.

Secondly, hydrogen is abundant. It can be produced from a variety of renewable resources, and it has many uses, offering the promise of significant benefits to the agricultural, manufacturing, transportation, and service sectors of our economy. Our aerospace and chemical industries are ready right now to implement significant increases in the production, distribution, and storage of hydrogen as an energy commodity.

Also, hydrogen is a proven, effective carrier of energy. Today, our cars are fueled with hydrogen-enriched gasoline. Our automobile industry is developing fuel-cell powered cars, and researchers are closing in on ways to power entire communities with hydrogen technology.

There are many who feel that the Third World developing countries will be able to utilize it before us. We can create it and sell it to them, another way to increase American jobs.

I am told that hydrogen can be combined with gasoline, ethanol, methanol, or natural gas. Just adding 5 percent hydrogen to the gasoline/air mixture in an internal combustion engine can reduce nitrogen oxide emissions from 30 to 40 percent. An engine converted to burn pure hydrogen produces mostly clean water as exhaust.

For example, NASA, in addition to using hydrogen to propel the space shuttle, uses hydrogen to provide all the shuttles electric power in on-board fuel cells, whose exhaust, pure water, is used to drink by those who are on the trip.

While this is no secret, some people might be surprised to know that the largest user of hydrogen is the petrochemical industry which infuses oil with growing amounts of hydrogen in order to meet environmental regulations. Hydrogen also improves the potency and lowers emissions of natural gas. I believe this is one of the most immediate targets of continuing opportunity for our industry.

Our economy is a fossil fuel-based economy, and we should be thankful for the success we have had there. But hydrogen, not only is an energy itself, but is an enhancer of the current fossil fuels.

I urge the adoption of this amendment, and I urge a stronger emphasis be put on hydrogen. There is no downside to hydrogen. It is what we should put our investment in. I believe it will be the fuel that will operate our future economy.

[Time: 19:45]

7:45 PM EDT
Marcy Kaptur, D-OH 9th

Ms. KAPTUR. Mr. Chairman, I thank the gentleman from Colorado (Mr. UDALL) for yielding me this time, and I also want to thank the gentleman from Arizona (Mr. SALMON) and the gentleman from New York (Mr. BOEHLERT) for their cosponsorship of this very important amendment.

I want to also thank the chairman of the subcommittee, the gentleman from California (Mr. PACKARD), and the ranking member, the gentleman from Indiana (Mr. VISCLOSKY), for their cooperation. Because when this legislation was considered in the full Committee on Appropriations, I offered an amendment to make sure that we did not spend any less this coming year than we did the current year, and the original bill that came to us was about $12 million under what we were spending for

this area of renewables and solar. In fact, it was $106 million under the administration's request. The gentleman from California (Mr. Packard) very willingly tried to work with us and to tick up this account a bit.

Certainly in light of rising fuel prices in this country, we really thank the chairman for his cooperation and interest, and I sincerely hope as this bill progresses farther down the appropriations process in our work with the other body we will be able to find additional dollars for this important addition to America's energy security.

Every person in this Chamber and every American listening tonight knows that this is the right direction for America, and that in fact America's chief strategic vulnerability now is our energy dependence. To see American diplomats on their knees to the leaders of other countries, oil producing states, asking them to try to take care of us and to increase their production, is not a position America wants to be in at the beginning of this new millennium.

We spend over $50 billion a year on imported petroleum products and crude. And when we go and pump gasoline in our tanks, over half of every dollar that we spend goes in the pocket of a leader of business in some other nation, not this one. To put it in perspective, America's farmland and our farmers, our agriculture infrastructure, can produce enough energy to replace half of our Nation's gasoline usage and all of our nuclear power supply. And we can do so without a major impact on food prices.

That is how productive agricultural America can be if given this challenge.

Imagine taking that $50 billion we pay to someone else and putting it to work here at home for domestic investment in rural America, in terms of jobs created for production, harvesting, storage of biofuel inputs, and industrial growth with the creation of facilities for the conversion of biomass to fuel. What an energy boost, in fact, this would be and an income boost for so many communities across this country.

I have been very surprised at how slow we have made progress in this [Page: H5253]

area. Progress has come, but not in as fast a way as we have seen progress, for example, in our space program. So I rise in very strong support of the amendment. This is the right direction for America, the right direction for the future, and I commend both gentlemen.

7:48 PM EDT
Matt Salmon, R-AZ 1st

Mr. SALMON. Mr. Chairman, I yield such time as he may consume to the gentleman from Florida (Mr. FOLEY), who not only talks the talk, he walks the walk. He has a convertible so that he does not have to use his blow dryer in the morning and saves on energy that way.

7:49 PM EDT
Mark Foley, R-FL 16th

Mr. FOLEY. Mr. Chairman, I certainly appreciate the personal observation of the gentleman from Arizona.

Mr. Chairman, I first want to salute the gentlewoman from Ohio (Ms. KAPTUR), who just made some very, very important statements. I think it is important for America to note the strongest Nation on Earth, the one everyone comes to for aid and assistance, is on bended knee at OPEC headquarters pleading for lower fuel prices. The United States of America, who when asked to defend other nations is the first to respond, sends its emissaries to plead with the oil emirates to please bring down

our prices, our voters are upset.

This amendment goes a long way to rectifying not only the pleadings but, hopefully, the passage of a new era in seeking alternative fuels that will not degrade the environment, that will be available, and will create opportunities and jobs. So I applaud the gentleman from Arizona and the gentleman from Colorado (Mr. UDALL) for their leadership on this initiative. I do think it is important.

Mr. Chairman, we flick on switches and electricity immediately comes on. We start our cars; we drive. We immediately have access to virtually anything we want in this country. Yet at the end of the day we are indeed dependent on other people to supply the basic resources of this country to run our operations. Let us not continue to find ourselves at this place at this time. Let us support this amendment, let us move forward, let us strive in the 21st century to bring about technologies that will

improve the quality of life, that will improve the quality of the atmosphere and make our lives less dependent on outside and external forces.

7:50 PM EDT
Mark Udall, D-CO 2nd

Mr. UDALL of Colorado. Mr. Chairman, I yield myself such time as I may consume to respond to my colleague from Florida that I agree with him; that this is an issue of national security at its core. It is also an issue of great economic opportunity. And in an interesting way, it is an issue that could provide more freedom to every American.

If we think about it, we bring our oil from all over the world, and we have to centralize the production of it and the distribution of it. If we move in the direction that the gentlewoman from Ohio (Ms. KAPTUR) and the gentleman from Arizona (Mr. SALMON) are providing leadership in, we can be producing these fuels in our home areas and in ways that provide maximum freedom to all our citizens.

It is an interesting thought and an exciting one, I thank the gentleman for his leadership on this.

Mr. Chairman, I yield 3 minutes to the gentleman from Wisconsin (Mr. KIND).

(Mr. KIND asked and was given permission to revise and extend his remarks.)

7:50 PM EDT
Mark Udall, D-CO 2nd

Mr. UDALL of Colorado. Mr. Chairman, I yield myself such time as I may consume to respond to my colleague from Florida that I agree with him; that this is an issue of national security at its core. It is also an issue of great economic opportunity. And in an interesting way, it is an issue that could provide more freedom to every American.

If we think about it, we bring our oil from all over the world, and we have to centralize the production of it and the distribution of it. If we move in the direction that the gentlewoman from Ohio (Ms. KAPTUR) and the gentleman from Arizona (Mr. SALMON) are providing leadership in, we can be producing these fuels in our home areas and in ways that provide maximum freedom to all our citizens.

It is an interesting thought and an exciting one, I thank the gentleman for his leadership on this.

Mr. Chairman, I yield 3 minutes to the gentleman from Wisconsin (Mr. KIND).

(Mr. KIND asked and was given permission to revise and extend his remarks.)

7:51 PM EDT
Ron Kind, D-WI 3rd

Mr. KIND. Mr. Chairman, I thank the gentleman from Colorado (Mr. UDALL) for yielding me this time, and I rise in strong support of this alternative energy amendment.

In the past few months, gasoline prices have skyrocketed, with my western Wisconsin constituents paying nearly $1.90 per gallon for conventional gasoline, not the reformulated gasoline, but conventional gasoline. Unfortunately, many elected officials, from both sides of the political aisle, would rather play politics with this issue and blame someone else for the problem rather than work to find answers and fix the problem for the future.

Many of my colleagues claim that the current gasoline prices are the result of an inadequate national energy policy. To them, however, increased domestic drilling and greater reliance on oil seems to be the panacea for decreasing the rising prices at the pump. Other Members believe the big oil companies and refiners are gouging consumers with inflated gasoline prices, leading to a 512 percent profit margin for the oil industry in this year alone.

While the arguments of both parties may well have some merit, it is undeniable this Nation needs to invest more in renewable and alternative energy technologies that are more environmentally friendly. Wind, solar, geothermal, biomass, and hydropower are important components in our Nation's energy mix. Unfortunately, between fiscal year 1973 and fiscal year 1995, renewable energy technologies accounted for approximately 10 percent of all Federal Government research and development spending. Private

sector energy R&D declined 42 percent between 1985 and 1994. In fact, it has continued, this downward decline.

Investments in efficient and renewable energy sources deliver value for taxpayers by lowering our energy demand while developing additional domestic energy sources that strengthen our national security, spur new high-tech jobs, boost world economic development, and help protect the environment.

My constituents are currently suffering from inordinately high gas prices. And while it is important that we find out the causes for the regional differentials in gas prices as they exist today, especially in the upper Midwest region, we must also use this opportunity to advance a proactive and more sustainable long-term energy policy so we are in more control of our own energy needs in the future. This amendment helps us get there, and I urge my colleagues to support it.

7:55 PM EDT
Lynn Woolsey, D-CA 6th

Ms. WOOLSEY. Mr. Chairman, I rise in strong support of the Salmon-Udall amendment to increase funding for renewable programs. Renewables are a clean energy source and renewables are good for our environment.

It is no secret that current sources of energy, nuclear and fossil fuel-burning power plants, produce emissions and pollutants. These harmful by-products include long-lived radioactive wastes, greenhouse gases, and the air pollutants responsible for acid rain. By increasing our support for renewable energy sources to meet our Nation's electric needs, we can significantly reduce our contribution to the release of these pollutants.

Supporting renewable energy is a powerful and direct way to help protect the environment, and it is also a way to make a long-lasting commitment to our children's future and to the future of our planet. It is only responsible, and it is prudent that we support the technological development of renewable energy sources, especially in light of the current oil price crisis we are all experiencing across this Nation.

I firmly believe that we already rely too heavily on foreign oil. We must develop a responsible domestic energy policy. We must shift our focus to domestic fuel sources, like wind, like solar and geothermal; and we must assure a guaranteed supply of available and affordable energy. Yet in order for us to have options other than foreign-produced fossil fuel in the future, we must have genuine investments in renewables today.

This amendment is a key step in that direction. It is also a statement of what our energy priorities must and should be. Mr. Chairman, I urge my colleagues to support this amendment. We must develop renewable sources of energy that our children can depend upon.

7:55 PM EDT
Lynn Woolsey, D-CA 6th

Ms. WOOLSEY. Mr. Chairman, I rise in strong support of the Salmon-Udall amendment to increase funding for renewable programs. Renewables are a clean energy source and renewables are good for our environment.

It is no secret that current sources of energy, nuclear and fossil fuel-burning power plants, produce emissions and pollutants. These harmful by-products include long-lived radioactive wastes, greenhouse gases, and the air pollutants responsible for acid rain. By increasing our support for renewable energy sources to meet our Nation's electric needs, we can significantly reduce our contribution to the release of these pollutants.

Supporting renewable energy is a powerful and direct way to help protect the environment, and it is also a way to make a long-lasting commitment to our children's future and to the future of our planet. It is only responsible, and it is prudent that we support the technological development of renewable energy sources, especially in light of the current oil price crisis we are all experiencing across this Nation.

I firmly believe that we already rely too heavily on foreign oil. We must develop a responsible domestic energy policy. We must shift our focus to domestic fuel sources, like wind, like solar and geothermal; and we must assure a guaranteed supply of available and affordable energy. Yet in order for us to have options other than foreign-produced fossil fuel in the future, we must have genuine investments in renewables today.

This amendment is a key step in that direction. It is also a statement of what our energy priorities must and should be. Mr. Chairman, I urge my colleagues to support this amendment. We must develop renewable sources of energy that our children can depend upon.

7:57 PM EDT
Mark Udall, D-CO 2nd

Mr. UDALL of Colorado. Mr. Chairman, I yield myself such time as I may consume.

Again, I want to just close and thank my colleague, the gentleman from Arizona (Mr. SALMON), for all his terrific work in this regard over the last couple of years. I do look forward to working with him in the future.

I might leave the discussion with a couple of additional thoughts. I was reminded that just 100 years ago humans depended on three sources of energy: their own muscle power, that of animals, and wood. And over the last hundred years we have created an immensely powerful supply of energy that is based on petroleum and fossil fuels. [Page: H5254]

When that potential energy source became apparent, the Federal Government was very involved in the research and development

that occurred that determined and explored and discovered all these terrific uses for petroleum.

Now we are on the cusp of a new age, and I think it is very appropriate that we continue this kind of involvement as we move into a new energy century and we explore all the great possibilities of clean energy that involves biomass, solar, hydrogen, and the like. This is something that will be exciting, that will be great for our economy and great for our environment.

Mr. Chairman, I yield back the balance of my time.

7:58 PM EDT
Matt Salmon, R-AZ 1st

Mr. SALMON. Mr. Chairman, I yield myself such time as I may consume and would simply like to concur with the gentleman from Colorado.

We have a very exciting opportunity right now. We are on the cusp of some things that are very great. We can stay at the leading edge on technology, or we can move to the back of the pack. I propose that we are doing the right thing tonight by moving one step closer on this commitment toward renewable energy.

I thank the gentleman for his tireless commitment. It has been an honor and a privilege to work with him on this.

7:58 PM EDT
Matt Salmon, R-AZ 1st

Mr. SALMON. Mr. Chairman, I yield myself such time as I may consume and would simply like to concur with the gentleman from Colorado.

We have a very exciting opportunity right now. We are on the cusp of some things that are very great. We can stay at the leading edge on technology, or we can move to the back of the pack. I propose that we are doing the right thing tonight by moving one step closer on this commitment toward renewable energy.

I thank the gentleman for his tireless commitment. It has been an honor and a privilege to work with him on this.