American History TV Schedule

Week of December 12 through December 19

All times and durations are subject to change

Saturday, December 14
8:00 AM ESTApprox. 45 min.Reel America "Europe - Two Decades" - 1965This film documents the first two decades in Europe after World War II and the many confrontations ... This film documents the first two decades in Europe after World War II and the many confrontations between nations aligned with the Soviet Union and western European countries. The film details the Marshall Plan, origins of the Cold War, Soviet influence in Eastern Europe, the Berlin Airlift, and the construction of the Berlin Wall. Produced by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the film argues that NATO is vital for preventing another war in Europe. 8:45 AM ESTApprox. 1 hr. 15 min.World War I, African Americans & Civil RightsThe National Museum of African American History and Culture recently released a book called " We ... The National Museum of African American History and Culture recently released a book called " We Return Fighting: World War I and the Shaping of Modern Black Identity." In conjunction, the museum also has a temporary exhibit focusing on African Americans during the war. Museum curator and book contributor Krewasky Salter joined Howard University professor Greg Carr to talk about the collection of essays that inspired the book and exhibit. The two also discussed how the African American experience during what was then called "the Great War" served as a catalyst for the civil rights movement. 10:00 AM ESTApprox. 40 min.Oral Histories Trent Lott on Nixon Impeachment InquiryFormer House Judiciary Committee member Trent Lott discusses his experiences as a new congressman ... Former House Judiciary Committee member Trent Lott discusses his experiences as a new congressman in the early 1970s, focusing on the impeachment inquiry into President Richard Nixon. The interview is from the Richard Nixon Presidential Library oral history collection and was conducted by library director Timothy Naftali.
10:40 AM ESTApprox. 55 min.Oral Histories Elizabeth HoltzmanElizabeth Holtzman (D-NY) talked about the impeachment of President Nixon from her perspective as ... Elizabeth Holtzman (D-NY) talked about the impeachment of President Nixon from her perspective as a freshman in Congress and described the impeachment hearing process. In 1973 she became the youngest woman ever elected to Congress and as a freshman was appointed to the House Judiciary Committee. In 1974, the committee passed three articles of impeachment against President Nixon. This is a portion of an oral history interview conducted by Timothy Naftali on April 5, 2007, in New York, New York, for the Nixon Presidential Materials Staff at the National Archives and Records Administration, soon to be part of the Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum. 11:35 AM ESTApprox. 14 min.Life and Career of Peter RodinoRep. Rodino talked about his life and political career. Topics included the U.S. Constitution, his ... Rep. Rodino talked about his life and political career. Topics included the U.S. Constitution, his Italian background, his retirement after 40 years in Congress, and his feelings about politics and citizenship. He told many stories about his experiences. 11:49 AM ESTApprox. 11 min.NASA Research Mathematician Katherine JohnsonWest Virginia native and West Virginia State University alumnus Katherine Johnson played a pivotal ... West Virginia native and West Virginia State University alumnus Katherine Johnson played a pivotal role in NASA's missions to put men in space and on the moon. WVSU President Anthony Jenkins talked about Mrs. Johnson's contributions.
12:00 PM ESTApprox. 2 hr.President Bill Clinton Impeachment - House Judiciary Commitee DebateIn the first of a three-part program, we look back to the 1998-99 impeachment of President Bill ... In the first of a three-part program, we look back to the 1998-99 impeachment of President Bill Clinton with Alexis Simendinger. She covered the impeachment for National Journal, and is now national political correspondent for The Hill newspaper. We then show a portion of the December 11, 1998, House Judiciary Committee debate on one of the four articles they passed: Article III, related to obstruction of justice. We also see a debate about the impeachment process and the different roles of the House and the Senate. 2:00 PM ESTApprox. 29 min.Reel America "The Whole World is Watching" - 1971This film by the Washington, DC Metropolitan Police Department documents a series of anti-Vietnam ... This film by the Washington, DC Metropolitan Police Department documents a series of anti-Vietnam War actions by about 45,000 protesters in 1971. Blocking access to government buildings and disrupting traffic, activists sought to "shut down the federal government" as stated in their widely-circulated "May Day Tactical Manual." On May 3, 1971, more than 7,000 protesters were arrested for failing to leave their campsites in West Potomac Park - the largest mass arrest in U.S. history. The film is shown courtesy of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, the distributor and copyright holder. 2:29 PM ESTApprox. 1 hr. 31 min.Cold War Peace PoliticsAuthor Petra Goedde talked about her book, "The Politics of Peace: A Global Cold War History." She ... Author Petra Goedde talked about her book, "The Politics of Peace: A Global Cold War History." She explored the emerging politics of peace during the early years of the Cold War. The Woodrow Wilson Center & the National History Center hosted this event.
4:00 PM ESTApprox. 44 min.History Bookshelf Fergus Bordewich, "America's Great Debate"Fergus Bordewich talked about his book, "America's Great Debate: Henry Clay, Stephen A. Douglas ... Fergus Bordewich talked about his book, "America's Great Debate: Henry Clay, Stephen A. Douglas and the Compromise That Preserved the Union." In it he tells the story of the nation's westward expansion, slavery, and the Compromise of 1850, centering on the congressional debate of 1849-1850 and two senators who sought to shape the future course of the Union. He responded to questions from members of the audience. This was an event in the History and Biography Pavilion of the 12th annual National Book Festival, held on the National Mall. 4:44 PM ESTApprox. 1 hr. 16 min.Teaching the Vietnam WarThree college professors discussed the ways they teach about U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. ... Three college professors discussed the ways they teach about U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. Panelists also talked about their personal participation in peace and anti-war movements and how those experiences translate into their classrooms. This discussion was part of a conference in Washington, DC hosted in conjunction with the "Waging Peace in Vietnam" traveling exhibit. 6:00 PM ESTApprox. 54 min.The Civil War 1864 Shenandoah Valley CampaignCivil War scholar Scott Patchan talked about operations in the Shenandoah Valley during July and ... Civil War scholar Scott Patchan talked about operations in the Shenandoah Valley during July and August 1864. Following a Confederate advance on Washington D.C. under Major General Jubal Early, Union and Confederate forces engaged in skirmishes throughout the Valley. The Mosby Area Heritage Association hosted the event.
6:54 PM ESTApprox. 1 hr. 5 min.Day to Day Life of a Military Advisor in South VietnamTwo Military Assistance Command, Vietnam - or MACV - team leaders used photographs from the time ... Two Military Assistance Command, Vietnam - or MACV - team leaders used photographs from the time to discuss their day to day experiences and responsibilities as military advisors in rural Vietnam. Both were in their early twenties at the time, and they also discussed efforts to help with economic and agricultural redevelopment. MACV teams were often small groups of U.S. Army officers assigned to remote areas, supported only by South Vietnamese forces. This event was part of a MACV teams 60 and 65 50th anniversary reunion in Charleston, South Carolina. 7:59 PM ESTApprox. 1 hr. 21 min.Lectures in History Slaves Suing for Their FreedomUniversity of Nebraska-Lincoln professor William G. Thomas III taught a class on some of the ... University of Nebraska-Lincoln professor William G. Thomas III taught a class on some of the lawsuits brought by enslaved people who sued for their freedom in the antebellum period. He outlined the different legal arguments they used and emphasized how most suits affected not just one person, but entire families. 9:20 PM ESTApprox. 39 min.American Artifacts U.S. Diplomacy Center Museum Collections - Part 2
9:59 PM ESTApprox. 1 hr. 1 min.Reel America "Tigers on the Loose" - 1965This 1965 U.S. Army film highlights the 10th Armored Division, known as the "Tiger" division. ... This 1965 U.S. Army film highlights the 10th Armored Division, known as the "Tiger" division. Narrated by actor Lorne Greene, the story is told in two parts primarily by the World War II veterans themselves. They detail the Battle of the Bulge and the division's experience up to the surrender of Germany in May of 1945. On December 16, 1944, Adolf Hitler launched a surprise counteroffensive against Allied forces in the Ardennes Forest region of Belgium, northeastern France and Luxembourg. Committing over 1,000 tanks and 200,000 troops to this last effort, Hitler hoped to recapture the port city of Antwerp. 11:00 PM ESTApprox. 1 hr.American Artifacts Nixon Library Watergate ExhibitThe Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum in Yorba Linda, California, recently opened a ... The Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum in Yorba Linda, California, recently opened a new exhibit about Watergate. Library Director Timothy Naftali gave American History TV a tour of the exhibit, which chronicles events beginning in 1971 that led up to the break-in at the Watergate offices of the Democratic National Committee on June 17, 1972. Mr. Naftali also discussed the aftermath of the scandal, the resignation of President Nixon on August 9, 1974, and the lasting impact that Watergate made on our system of government. Extensive samples of Watergate evidence, including documents, oral histories, audio recordings and vintage television clips are available to explore online at nixonlibrary.gov
Sunday, December 15
12:00 AM ESTApprox. 1 hr. 20 min.Lectures in History Slaves Suing for Their FreedomUniversity of Nebraska-Lincoln professor William G. Thomas III taught a class on some of the ... University of Nebraska-Lincoln professor William G. Thomas III taught a class on some of the lawsuits brought by enslaved people who sued for their freedom in the antebellum period. He outlined the different legal arguments they used and emphasized how most suits affected not just one person, but entire families. 1:20 AM ESTApprox. 40 min.American Artifacts U.S. Diplomacy Center Museum Collections - Part 2 2:00 AM ESTApprox. 50 min.History Bookshelf Fergus Bordewich, "America's Great Debate"Fergus Bordewich talked about his book, "America's Great Debate: Henry Clay, Stephen A. Douglas ... Fergus Bordewich talked about his book, "America's Great Debate: Henry Clay, Stephen A. Douglas and the Compromise That Preserved the Union." In it he tells the story of the nation's westward expansion, slavery, and the Compromise of 1850, centering on the congressional debate of 1849-1850 and two senators who sought to shape the future course of the Union. He responded to questions from members of the audience. This was an event in the History and Biography Pavilion of the 12th annual National Book Festival, held on the National Mall.
2:50 AM ESTApprox. 55 min.The Civil War 1864 Shenandoah Valley CampaignCivil War scholar Scott Patchan talked about operations in the Shenandoah Valley during July and ... Civil War scholar Scott Patchan talked about operations in the Shenandoah Valley during July and August 1864. Following a Confederate advance on Washington D.C. under Major General Jubal Early, Union and Confederate forces engaged in skirmishes throughout the Valley. The Mosby Area Heritage Association hosted the event. 3:45 AM ESTApprox. 1 hr. 20 min.Vietnam War Diplomatic & Peace InitiativesHistorians discussed U.S. diplomatic and peace initiatives during the Vietnam War. Panelists ... Historians discussed U.S. diplomatic and peace initiatives during the Vietnam War. Panelists focused on the role soldiers played, why the war should have been avoided, the perspective of the South Vietnamese people. This talk is part of a conference in conjunction with the traveling exhibit "Waging Peace in Vietnam: U.S. Soldiers and Veterans Who Opposed the War." 5:05 AM ESTApprox. 1 hr. 10 min.Teaching the Vietnam WarThree college professors discussed the ways they teach about U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. ... Three college professors discussed the ways they teach about U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. Panelists also talked about their personal participation in peace and anti-war movements and how those experiences translate into their classrooms. This discussion was part of a conference in Washington, DC hosted in conjunction with the "Waging Peace in Vietnam" traveling exhibit.
6:15 AM ESTApprox. 55 min.Vietnam War Soldier & Civilian Peace InitiativesHistorian Christian Appy and peace activist Cora Weiss delivered keynote talks on U.S. soldier and ... Historian Christian Appy and peace activist Cora Weiss delivered keynote talks on U.S. soldier and civilian peace initiatives during the Vietnam War. Their remarks were part of a conference in Washington, DC hosted in conjunction with the "Waging Peace in Vietnam" traveling exhibit. 7:10 AM ESTApprox. 50 min.James Baker & American DiplomacyFormer Secretary of State James Baker recounted his time as the country's top diplomat in the ... Former Secretary of State James Baker recounted his time as the country's top diplomat in the George H.W. Bush administration in a conversation with philanthropist David Rubenstein. The Diplomacy Center Foundation hosted the event at the National Museum of American Daiplomacy in Washington, DC, and presented Baker with its first Excellence in Diplomacy award. 8:00 AM ESTApprox. 2 hr. 5 min.History Bookshelf Jeffrey Haas, "The Assassination of Fred HamptonJeffrey Haas talked about his book "The Assassination of Fred Hampton: How the FBI and the Chicago ... Jeffrey Haas talked about his book "The Assassination of Fred Hampton: How the FBI and the Chicago Police Murdered a Black Panther." On December 4, 1969, Fred Hampton, the 21-year-old chairman of the Illinois Black Panther Party, was shot dead in his bed during a police raid in which Mark Clark was also killed. In his book Jeffrey Haas recounts how he and Flint Taylor, his law partner, attempted to prove that Fred Hampton's death was not self-defense, as the police advocates claimed, but was premeditated by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Chicago police department.
10:05 AM ESTApprox. 54 min.The Civil War 1864 Confederate Maryland CampaignAuthor Marc Leepson discussed Confederate General Jubal Early's summer 1864 campaign into Maryland ... Author Marc Leepson discussed Confederate General Jubal Early's summer 1864 campaign into Maryland and the outskirts of Washington, D.C. The offensive was part of a larger strategy by General Robert E. Lee to draw the Union Army's attention and resources away from targeting the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia. The Mosby Heritage Area Association hosted the event. 10:59 AM ESTApprox. 1 hr. 11 min.Norman Mineta's Experiences Living in a World War II Japanese Internment CampAndrea Warren talked about her book, "Enemy Child: The Story of Norman Mineta, a Boy Imprisoned in ... Andrea Warren talked about her book, "Enemy Child: The Story of Norman Mineta, a Boy Imprisoned in a Japanese American Internment Camp During World War II." Mr. Mineta joined the discussion to share his experiences before, during and after his time at the Heart Mountain War Relocation Center, located in Wyoming. The Library of Congress hosted this event. 12:10 PM ESTApprox. 1 hr. 2 min.Lectures in History Public Opinion, Radio & Entry into World War IIWofford College professor Mark Byrnes taught a class about U.S. public opinion, the rise of radio ... Wofford College professor Mark Byrnes taught a class about U.S. public opinion, the rise of radio as a national media, and the debate about whether to enter World War II. He outlined the arguments both for and against intervention and used radio clips to demonstrate the role it played in shaping American views and foreign policy.
1:12 PM ESTApprox. 33 min.American Artifacts U.S. Diplomacy Center Museum Collections - Part 1A curator and a historian from the State Department's U.S. Diplomacy Center used a selection of ... A curator and a historian from the State Department's U.S. Diplomacy Center used a selection of artifacts from their collection of more than 7,000 to tell the diplomatic history of the United States. The artifacts will be featured in the U.S. Diplomacy Center Museum, which is scheduled to open in 2019. 1:45 PM ESTApprox. 1 hr. 20 min.Vietnam War Diplomatic & Peace InitiativesHistorians discussed U.S. diplomatic and peace initiatives during the Vietnam War. Panelists ... Historians discussed U.S. diplomatic and peace initiatives during the Vietnam War. Panelists focused on the role soldiers played, why the war should have been avoided, the perspective of the South Vietnamese people. This talk is part of a conference in conjunction with the traveling exhibit "Waging Peace in Vietnam: U.S. Soldiers and Veterans Who Opposed the War." 3:05 PM ESTApprox. 55 min.Vietnam War Soldier & Civilian Peace InitiativesHistorian Christian Appy and peace activist Cora Weiss delivered keynote talks on U.S. soldier and ... Historian Christian Appy and peace activist Cora Weiss delivered keynote talks on U.S. soldier and civilian peace initiatives during the Vietnam War. Their remarks were part of a conference in Washington, DC hosted in conjunction with the "Waging Peace in Vietnam" traveling exhibit.
4:00 PM ESTApprox. 58 min.Reel America "Tigers on the Loose" - 1965This 1965 U.S. Army film highlights the 10th Armored Division, known as the "Tiger" division. ... This 1965 U.S. Army film highlights the 10th Armored Division, known as the "Tiger" division. Narrated by actor Lorne Greene, the story is told in two parts primarily by the World War II veterans themselves. They detail the Battle of the Bulge and the division's experience up to the surrender of Germany in May of 1945. On December 16, 1944, Adolf Hitler launched a surprise counteroffensive against Allied forces in the Ardennes Forest region of Belgium, northeastern France and Luxembourg. Committing over 1,000 tanks and 200,000 troops to this last effort, Hitler hoped to recapture the port city of Antwerp. 4:58 PM ESTApprox. 12 min.Michigan History MuseumThe Michigan History Center tells the story of the state's growth from its indigenous peoples to ... The Michigan History Center tells the story of the state's growth from its indigenous peoples to the success of Detroit's auto industry. Community Engagement Director Tobi Voigt gave a tour of the museum and explained how the state's natural resources helped build Michigan's economic success. 5:10 PM ESTApprox. 1 hr. 20 min.Oral Histories Jill Wine-BanksJill Wine-Banks recounts her time as a member of the Watergate Special Prosecution Force. She ... Jill Wine-Banks recounts her time as a member of the Watergate Special Prosecution Force. She offers insight into how the team crafted their case despite active interference and stonewalling by the Nixon White House.
6:30 PM ESTApprox. 1 hr. 24 min.The Presidency Watergate Judicial & Prosecutorial ConductGeoff Shepard was principal deputy to President Nixon's lead defense lawyer. He made the case for ... Geoff Shepard was principal deputy to President Nixon's lead defense lawyer. He made the case for what he says was judicial and prosecutorial abuse in the Watergate scandal that ended Mr. Nixon's presidency. This lecture was from a Temple University course Mr. Shepard taught called "Watergate Revisited: An Insider's View." In his White House role, Mr. Shepard helped transcribe the Watergate tapes. 7:54 PM ESTApprox. 6 min.Base Camp Printing Co.Base Camp Printing Co. is a design and letterpress studio that uses handmade techniques and ... Base Camp Printing Co. is a design and letterpress studio that uses handmade techniques and vintage printing presses. Co-owner Emily Sokolosky walked through the printing process, and also explained how the shop uses West Virginia University's 100-year-old Gramlee Collection letterpress plates in their work. 8:00 PM ESTApprox. 1 hr. 30 min.President Bill Clinton Impeachment - House Floor DebateIn the second of a three-part program, we looked back to the 1998-99 impeachment of President Bill ... In the second of a three-part program, we looked back to the 1998-99 impeachment of President Bill Clinton with Alexis Simendinger. She covered the impeachment for National Journal, and is now national political correspondent for The Hill newspaper. We then showed a portion of the U.S. House floor debate from December 19 on four articles of impeachment. The House voted to approve two of those articles making Bill Clinton only the second president in U.S. history to be impeached since Andrew Johnson in 1868.
9:30 PM ESTApprox. 1 hr.American Artifacts Nixon Library Watergate ExhibitThe Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum in Yorba Linda, California, recently opened a ... The Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum in Yorba Linda, California, recently opened a new exhibit about Watergate. Library Director Timothy Naftali gave American History TV a tour of the exhibit, which chronicles events beginning in 1971 that led up to the break-in at the Watergate offices of the Democratic National Committee on June 17, 1972. Mr. Naftali also discussed the aftermath of the scandal, the resignation of President Nixon on August 9, 1974, and the lasting impact that Watergate made on our system of government. Extensive samples of Watergate evidence, including documents, oral histories, audio recordings and vintage television clips are available to explore online at nixonlibrary.gov 10:30 PM ESTApprox. 1 hr. 30 min.The Presidency Watergate Judicial & Prosecutorial ConductGeoff Shepard was principal deputy to President Nixon's lead defense lawyer. He made the case for ... Geoff Shepard was principal deputy to President Nixon's lead defense lawyer. He made the case for what he says was judicial and prosecutorial abuse in the Watergate scandal that ended Mr. Nixon's presidency. This lecture was from a Temple University course Mr. Shepard taught called "Watergate Revisited: An Insider's View." In his White House role, Mr. Shepard helped transcribe the Watergate tapes.
Monday, December 16
12:00 AM ESTApprox. 1 hr. 30 min.President Bill Clinton Impeachment - House Floor DebateIn the second of a three-part program, we looked back to the 1998-99 impeachment of President Bill ... In the second of a three-part program, we looked back to the 1998-99 impeachment of President Bill Clinton with Alexis Simendinger. She covered the impeachment for National Journal, and is now national political correspondent for The Hill newspaper. We then showed a portion of the U.S. House floor debate from December 19 on four articles of impeachment. The House voted to approve two of those articles making Bill Clinton only the second president in U.S. history to be impeached since Andrew Johnson in 1868. 1:30 AM ESTApprox. 30 min.American Artifacts International Spy Museum Exhibit on Cold War BerlinAmerican History TV visited the International Spy Museum in Washington, D.C. to tour their exhibit ... American History TV visited the International Spy Museum in Washington, D.C. to tour their exhibit on Cold War Berlin. Our guide was lead curator Alexis Albion, who explained how the city came to be divided after World War II, and showed us artifacts used by the East Germans to spy on visitors and control their own citizens. 2:00 AM ESTApprox. 59 min.Reel America "Tigers on the Loose" - 1965This 1965 U.S. Army film highlights the 10th Armored Division, known as the "Tiger" division. ... This 1965 U.S. Army film highlights the 10th Armored Division, known as the "Tiger" division. Narrated by actor Lorne Greene, the story is told in two parts primarily by the World War II veterans themselves. They detail the Battle of the Bulge and the division's experience up to the surrender of Germany in May of 1945. On December 16, 1944, Adolf Hitler launched a surprise counteroffensive against Allied forces in the Ardennes Forest region of Belgium, northeastern France and Luxembourg. Committing over 1,000 tanks and 200,000 troops to this last effort, Hitler hoped to recapture the port city of Antwerp.
2:59 AM ESTApprox. 2 hr. 16 min.Daniel Ellsberg on Nuclear War Planning & PolicyThe University of Massachusetts Amherst recently announced the acquisition of the papers of Daniel ... The University of Massachusetts Amherst recently announced the acquisition of the papers of Daniel Ellsberg, which will become part of the special collections library. In an event marking the acquisition, Pentagon Papers whistleblower Daniel Ellsberg talked about his career and the problem of nuclear weapons, which he says has coincided with his 88 years of life. Mr. Ellsberg's most recent book, "The Doomsday Machine: Confessions of a Nuclear War Planner" details his pre-Pentagon Papers work as a strategic analyst for the RAND corporation, Pentagon, and White House specializing in nuclear war decision making issues. He also discussed the role of whistleblowers in the 21st century. 5:15 AM ESTApprox. 45 min.History Bookshelf Fergus Bordewich, "America's Great Debate"Fergus Bordewich talked about his book, "America's Great Debate: Henry Clay, Stephen A. Douglas ... Fergus Bordewich talked about his book, "America's Great Debate: Henry Clay, Stephen A. Douglas and the Compromise That Preserved the Union." In it he tells the story of the nation's westward expansion, slavery, and the Compromise of 1850, centering on the congressional debate of 1849-1850 and two senators who sought to shape the future course of the Union. He responded to questions from members of the audience. This was an event in the History and Biography Pavilion of the 12th annual National Book Festival, held on the National Mall. 6:00 AM ESTApprox. 30 min.American Artifacts International Spy Museum Exhibit on Cold War BerlinAmerican History TV visited the International Spy Museum in Washington, D.C. to tour their exhibit ... American History TV visited the International Spy Museum in Washington, D.C. to tour their exhibit on Cold War Berlin. Our guide was lead curator Alexis Albion, who explained how the city came to be divided after World War II, and showed us artifacts used by the East Germans to spy on visitors and control their own citizens.
6:30 AM ESTApprox. 1 hr. 29 min.Cold War Peace PoliticsAuthor Petra Goedde talked about her book, "The Politics of Peace: A Global Cold War History." She ... Author Petra Goedde talked about her book, "The Politics of Peace: A Global Cold War History." She explored the emerging politics of peace during the early years of the Cold War. The Woodrow Wilson Center & the National History Center hosted this event. 7:59 AM ESTApprox. 1 hr. 11 min.Chris Wallace and Others Discuss First Amendment & Freedom at NewseumThe Newseum celebrated its final program examining the First Amendment. Among the speakers were ... The Newseum celebrated its final program examining the First Amendment. Among the speakers were Fox News Sunday's Chris Wallace, Del. Eleanor Holmes Norton (D-DC) and legal scholar Floyd Abrams.